Most of these studies are intended to decrease costs as a result hopefully of this analysis. Even well designed studies such as Propublica's are fraught with incorrect assumptions. Statistics should only be taken at face value and individual case studies are imperative. Many cases require a deep dyve to extract information that will improve safety and diminish complications.
Some controversy and a deeper look into the Propublica Study reveal mitigating information about less than optimal statistics for some surgeons.
When a bad surgeon is the one you want: ProPublica introduces a paradox
The truth is if you have a great outcome, you think your surgeon is the best. If it is less than optimal there is a wide range of reactions. Some surgeons have great bedside manners...sometimes they get away with 'murder' or complications. Some surgeons have no bedside manners. These surgeons may leave patients in doubt, especially if their outcome is less than optimal.